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REVISION CARDS - HARDWOODS

V. Ryan 2012

 

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WHAT ARE HARDWOODS ?

Sometimes called broad-leaf trees. Lose their leaves seasonally, in winter. Hardwoods tend to be harder than softwoods (with the exception of Balsa Wood). They have a wider variety of colour and texture than softwoods. Hard woods tend to be more expensive than softwoods and take longer to mature.

 
HARDWOODS 1

EUROPEAN OAK

Light tan in colour and straight grained. High quality timber.

Moderately hard to work with handtools. Tools should be kept sharp. Produces a high quality finish with wax, furniture oil and varnish.

Uses include; quality furniture, cabinet making and boat building.


     

HARDWOODS 2

EUROPEAN WALNUT

Grey to brown colour with relatively straight grain. Excellent timber.

Tough and can be worked reasonably easily with hand tools. Easy to carve and can be smoothed to a highly polished finish.
Used in solid and veneer form for high-class furniture, cabinet making, bank and office fittings.


  HARDWOODS 3
BALSA

Unlike most hardwoods. Fast growing.
Reaches maturity in just five to seven years.

Very soft and easy to work with tools. Pale in colour and extremely light to carry/transport.

Extremely popular as a material for model making. Also used occasionally to package delicate items.

 
 
 
HARDWOODS 4
EUROPEAN ASH

Colour - cream to pale tan. Tough, flexible and straight grained, very good steam bending qualities. Can be shaped and formed well with handtools. A smooth finish can be achieved and stains well.

Used for cabinet making, boats and handles of tools. Ash veneered plywood is popular.

 
HARDWOODS 5
BRAZILIAN MAHOGANY

Medium to dark brown in colour. Relatively easy to work with hand tools and machinery. Produces a good quality finish with glass paper. Takes varnish well.

Wide range of uses including furniture and boat building. Used widely as veneer.


     

HARDWOODS 6

ENGLISH ELM 

Light brown / pale brown in colour. Can be difficult to work with handtools, due to awkward grain. Can be worked to a fine finish. Looks particularly good with a waxed finish.

Used in cabinet making, turns quite well and is used as veneer, to provide a quality finish on cheaper woods.


  HARDWOODS 7
EUROPEAN BEECH

 Pale white to pink brown in colour. Very good for steam bending. It can be worked reasonably well with handtools and machinery.

Used for quality furniture, handles, manufacturing chairs and good for wood turning. Often used as a facing for plywood.

     
 
 
1. Write a general description of the nature of hardwoods. 
 
 
 
 
2. Complete the paragraph on European Oak, by adding the missing words. 
 
Light tan  -  straight  -  Moderately  -  wax  -  cabinet making 
 
_______ ____ in colour and ___________ grained. High quality timber. ____________ hard to work with handtools. Tools should be kept sharp. Produces a high quality finish with ____, furniture oil and varnish. Uses include; quality furniture, _________ _______ and boat building. 
 
3. Name the hardwood that is very light, very soft and easy to cut and shape. 
 
 
4. Describe two main uses of the hardwood you named in question 3. 
 
 
 
 
 
5. Study the trees below. Write the correct name above each one. 
 
 
By V.Ryan 
 
 
 
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