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RESISTORS  
V. Ryan © 2002  2022  
PDF FILE  CLICK HERE FOR PRINTABLE EXERCISE BASED ON WORK BELOW  
Resistors determine the flow of current in an electrical circuit. Where there is high resistance in a circuit the flow of current is small, where the resistance is low the flow of current is large. Resistance, voltage and current are connected in an electrical circuit by Ohm’s Law. 

When a resistor is introduced to a circuit the flow of current is reduced. The higher the value of the resistor the smaller/lower the flow of current. 

Resistors are used for regulating current
and they resist the current flow and the extent to which they do this is
measured in ohms (Ω). Resistors are
found in almost every electronic circuit. The most common type of resistor consists of a small ceramic (clay) tube covered partially by a conducting carbon film. The composition of the carbon determines how much current can pass through. 

FOUR BAND RESISTOR  LOWER TOLERANCE  
Resistors are too small to have numbers printed on
them and so they are marked with a number of coloured bands. A resistor’s value is determined by reading its colour bands from a resistor table / chart. The first band and second band represent numbers and the third band is the amount they are multiplied by. The fourth band represents the resistors accuracy, known as its TOLERANCE’. 

FIVE BAND RESISTOR  LOWER TOLERANCE  
Five colour band resistors, have a higher degree of accuracy, in terms of their resistance value. Six colour band resistors also exist and give even further accuracy.  
A typical resistor value chart is shown below. This chart can be used to read both, four and five colour band resistors. Two examples have been worked out: the four colour band at the top of the table and the five colour band resistor below the chart.  
PDF FILE  CLICK HERE FOR POSTER / CHART ON RESISTOR VALUES AND COLOUR BANDS  
PDF FILE  CLICK HERE FOR BASIC QUESTIONS ON RESISTOR VALUES AND OHMS LAW 

The value of a resistor can be written in a variety of ways. Some examples are given below:  


A common value is 'K' which means one thousand ohms. So if a resistor has a value of 7000 ohms it can also be said to have a value of 7K.  
RESISTORS IN SERIES AND IN PARALLEL 

Resistors can be connected together in two ways to
give different overall values. This is especially useful if you do not
have a resistor of the correct value and need to make it up from other
available ones. 

1. Resistors in SERIES  When resistors are connected in series, their values are added together:

R _{total}=R_{1}+R_{2} 

For example: 1K+1K+3K9=5K9 (total value) 

2.
Resistors in PARALLEL When resistors are connected in
parallel, their total resistance is given as:

1/R_{total} = 1/R_{1 }+ 1/R_{2} 

For example: 1/R_{total} = 1/1K + 1/1K = 0.5K or 500 ohms OR= R1 x R2 R1 +R2
= 1 x 1 = 1 1 +1 = 2 = 0.5k 

VARIABLE RESISTORS 

Variable resistors have adjustable values. Adjustment is normally made by turning a spindle (e.g. the volume control on a radio) or moving a slider. 

SYMBOL 

The rotary variable resistor is the cheapest type of variable resistor. A smaller version of this variable resistor is the preset resistor. The preset resistor is the type usually used in small electronic projects (you will probably use this type in school based projects). 

PRESET RESISTOR 

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